February 28, 2016

A Macabre Bucket List- Cemeteries To Visit, Before I Die


 
Père Lachaise opened on May 21, 1804. With the cemeteries of Paris filling to capacity, Pere Lachaise was part of several cemeteries, including Montparnasse Cemetery, and Montmartre Cemetery, built to help relieve the crowding in church yards.


Père Lachaise Cemetery(A) 
Père Lachaise was not a place very many people wanted to spend eternity when it first opened. The Roman Catholics of Paris did not want to be buried in a place that wasn't blessed by the church. A marketing strategy was then devised by the management of Père Lachaise. In 1817, the bodies of the famous Jean de La Fontaine a poet, and Molière, a playwright, were transferred to Père Lachaise that same year.

"The following year there were 44 burials, with 49 in 1806, 62 in 1807 and 833 in 1812." Everyone wanted to be buried next to the famous.


Jim Morrison's Grave at Père Lachaise(B) 
Now, the cemetery has "over 1 million"(1) people buried in Père Lachaise, famous, and common alike. Some of the more famous graves at Père Lachaise include the grave of Jim Morrison, the lead singer of "The Doors", author Oscar Wilde, and composer, Frédéric Chopin.


Chopin's Grave at Père Lachaise(C)


The Monteverde Angel | The Oneto Family Tomb (D)

One of the largest cemeteries in Europe, it was opened on January 2, 1851.(2) It has some of the most beautiful sculptures and funerary art in the world. To walk through Staglieno is to walk through a great museum. The presence of grief and remembrance is around every corner.

(E)
(F)(G)
(H)



Highgate Cemetery(I)

Highgate Cemetery was opened in 1839 and is part of "The Magnificent Seven". A group of cemeteries on the outer edges of London that were the first to be landscaped and designed with aesthetic value. "Together they tell a story of Victorian enterprise and progress that can impress today, and demonstrate the decent disposal of the dead."(I) The Magnificent Seven was part of a movement to beautify cemeteries, to have them more park like, than simply a dumping ground for the dead.

The cemetery is now managed by "The Friends of Highgate Cemetery", a charity group founded in 1975, it's main purpose is to preserve and restore the cemetery for future generations.

The cemetery is divided into the West & East Side. The West side which is the oldest part of the cemetery, is available to visitors by guided tour only. The West side includes the famous "Egyptian Avenue and The Circle of Lebanon, which features tombs, vaults and winding paths dug into the hillside."(3)
The Circle of Lebanon(J) 


The Entrance to Egyptian Ave(K) 
One of the more famous grave at Highgate is that of Karl Marx, who is buried in the East Side. The East Side is available to visitors to explore without a guided tour.
The East Side of Highgate Cemetery(L) 

                                          

Metairie Cemetery(M)
Metairie Cemetery has the largest collection of funerary art and statues in the city of New Orleans. The layout of the cemetery is in the shape of a large oval, due to the site of the cemetery once being a racetrack for horses, Metairie Race Course.

A man named Charles Howard moved to New Orleans from Baltimore before the beginning of the Civil War. He wanted to have a membership to Metairie Jockey Club and was denied membership. The legend goes he swore he would one day buy the race track and turn it into a cemetery. Eventually Charles had his wish. The cemetery went bankrupt with the Civil War, and Howard bought the track in 1872.(4) Howard is buried in the cemetery, he died in 1885.(5)



Tomb of Charles T. Howard(N)
Notable burials in the cemetery include: Stan Rice, (Poet and husband of Author, Anne Rice), Marguerite Clark, actress, Dorothy Dell, film actress of the 1930s, and Jefferson Davis, Confederate President during the Civil War.

One of the more beautiful statues in the cemetery is that of the Angel of Grief in the Hyams Mausoleum. It is based off the Angel sculpted by William Wetmore Story in 1894.(6) The Angel of Grief can be found all over the world. The original, by Story, was sculpted for his wife, who is buried at the Protestant Cemetery in Rome, Italy.
Hyams Mausoleum(O)
Metairie cemetery is now owned by Service Corporation International.(7) According to SCI's website, they are "...North America’s largest provider of funeral and cemetery services, with shares traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol SCI. It was founded in 1962 by Robert L. Waltrip, a licensed funeral director who grew up in his family’s funeral business and who still serves as chairman of the Company’s board of directors."(8)


                                    


Arlington National Cemetery(P)
Arlington is hallowed ground as the final resting place for our nation's service men, women and their families. The cemetery's vision is to"...lay to rest those who have served our nation with dignity and honor, treating their families with respect and compassion, and connecting guests to the rich tapestry of the cemetery's living history, while maintaining these hallowed grounds befitting the sacrifice of all those who rest here in quiet repose."

Like other cemeteries Arlington is full of history. However with this cemetery there is a sense of respect and honor to those who have died after or during their service in the military.

Arlington was originally land owned by George Washington's grandson, George Washington Parke Custis. Custis's daughter, Mary Anna Randolph inherited the land after her father's death. Mary Anna was married to the famous Civil War General Robert E. Lee. During the war, the 1,100 acre property served as a military camp.

Mary Anna and Robert Lee's son, George Washington Custis Lee, sold the property to the government in 1864. Due to the high death toll during the war the property became a cemetery. The first burial was in 1864 for Private William Christman. On June 15, the property was officially named a national cemetery.

Today Arlington serves as the final resting place for more than 400,000 military men and women and their families.(9)

Famous graves in the cemetery included but certainly aren't limited to:

President John F. Kennedy

November 22, 1963 JFK was assigned by Lee Harvey Oswald while on a campaign trip in Dallas, TX. The world went into shock.

Mrs Kennedy stated she wanted to model her husband's funeral after that of Abraham Lincoln's'. The executive director of the U.S. Civil War Centennial Commission, Professor James Robertson, and David Mearns, the directory of the Library of Congress did extensive research on Lincoln's funeral. As it took place a hundred years earlier for that of Lincoln, the East Room in the White House was transformed into a view room room for the late President's casket.

On a trip back in March of that year, Kennedy stated while visiting the Cutis-Lee Mansion, that the view of Washington DC was so beautiful that he could stay there forever. Robert Kennedy used that memory as confirmation that Arlington would be where JFK would come to rest.

Mrs. Kennedy wanted to mark her husband's grave with an eternal flame just as the grave of the unknown soldier in Paris, France. The Washington Gas Company hooked up a propane torch and it was lit by Mrs. Kennedy, and Robert during the funeral on November 25, 1963. Their is a constant electric flashing spark near the nozzle which will relight the gas should it go out from rain, or wind.


Mrs. Kennedy and Robert F. Kennedy walk away
from 
President Kennedy's casket after lighting the Eternal Flame(Q)
The entire grave site is 3.2 acres and the area directly around the grave is paved with stones quarried from Cape Cod, Kennedy's former home city.

"The presence of the grave also boosted attendance at Arlington National Cemetery. The president's 1963 funeral had been televised live, with 93 percent of all American homes watching. Satellites beamed the proceedings to another 23 countries, where another 600 million viewers watched. The television coverage transformed Arlington National Cemetery from a quiet veterans' cemetery into one of the Washington area's most popular tourist attractions. Average yearly attendance rose from 1 million people in 1962 to 9 million in the first six months of 1964."(10)

President William Howard Taft

Taft died on March 8, 1930 due to heart disease.(11) His funeral was held at All Souls' Unitarian Church in Washington, DC. Members of the Supreme Court were pallbearers.
William Howard Taft Memorial (R)
"At the request of the family, burial was to be in Arlington National Cemetery. Mr. Taft would be the first President buried there. Following the funeral service, a motor procession without military escort was to accompany the body to the Fort Myer Gate of the cemetery. There a military escort was to meet the motorcade and conduct it to the grave site, a 2,500-square-foot plot in the northeastern area which held few graves but was well landscaped. Mrs. Taft and her two sons and daughter, accompanied by Colonel Hodges and Col. Charles G. Mortimer, the officer in charge at Arlington, had visited the cemetery on 9 March and selected the site."(12)

Tomb of the Unknown Soldier

Space Shuttle "Challenger" Memorial

    Challenger Memorial @ Arlington  (S)

Vinnie Ream

She was the sculptor of the Lincoln statue in the U.S. Capitol rotunda and the first female artist commissioned by the government. She was also the last artist Lincoln sat for.
Vinnie posing for the photo with a bust of Lincoln.(U)


Vinnie Ream Monument @ Arlington(V)

Boxer, Joe Louis "The Brown Bomber"

Louis with the title: Heavyweight Champion of The World in 1937(W)


Louis' grave in Arlington(X)

Medgar Evers

Civil Rights Activist who was shot by a white supremacist in 1963. For more information on the murder of Medgar please see my previous post.


Medgar in his home state of Mississippi.(Y)


Medgar Evers Grave @ Arlington(Z)

                                          

Known for its oak lined walkways and weeping willows, Bonaventure started as a private cemetery on Bonaventure Plantation. In 1846 Josiah Tattnall, Jr. sold it to Evergreen Cemetery Company which was purchased by the city in 1907, making Bonaventure Cemetery, a public cemetery.(13) Citizens of Savannah can still buy plots in Bonaventure for their internment.

In 1867 a naturalist and preservationist named John Muir took a long walk of 1,000 miles from Indiana to Florida.(14) He later wrote a book about the adventure entitled "Thousand Mile Walk to the Gulf". While in Atlanta he chose to sleep in Bonaventure Cemetery for six days and nights. He slept on graves, stating it was the safest and cheapest place he could find while he waited for money from home to arrive. Muir said of the cemetery: "...I gazed awe-stricken as one new-arrived from another world. Bonaventure is called a graveyard, a town of the dead, but the few graves are powerless in such a depth of life. The rippling of living waters, the song of birds, the joyous confidence of flowers, the calm, undisturbable grandeur of the oaks, mark this place of graves as one of the Lord’s most favored abodes of life and light."

One of the most visited and beautiful tomb stones at Bonaventure is that of a young girl named Gracie Watson. She was born in 1883 to W.J. and Frances Watson. Her was the manager of the luxurious Pulaski Hotel. It is said that Gracie, with her blue eyes and bright smile would entertain the guests at the hotel with dances, and songs.



Gracie Watson's Grave(A1)
Sadly in 1889 Gracie died from pneumonia. To remember her, her grief stricken parents had the artist John Walz carve the likeness of Gracie in a sculpture to place in the Watson Family plot in Bonaventure. As a tribute many visitors leave flowers and toys for little Gracie.(15)

Other famous graves in Bonaventure include, Writer Conrad Aiken, and Confederate General, Henry Jackson.(16)





Gatehouse built in 1835, designed by John Notman(A2)
In 1835 a man named John Jay Smith had lost his daughter. While looking at local church yard to bury her, he was struck with how crowded it was. "...I found it impossible to designate the resting place of a darling daughter, determined me to endeavor to procure for the citizens a suitable, neat and orderly location for a rural cemetery."(17)

Smith wanted to create a cemetery that was a place of peace, and beauty for Philadelphia, a park like place where overcrowding wasn't a problem. In 1836 Smith and some associates, citizens of Philadelphia who shared Smith's vision, bought a 32 acre estate called Laurel Hill. It's remote location applied to Smith. A Scottish immigrant named John Notman designed the cemetery.(18)
Patterson Monument, one of many beautiful sculptures at Laurel Hill(A3)

The cemetery was completed in 1839. To increase the cemeteries notoriety, several prominent citizens were interred from other burial sites and reburied at Laurel Hill, including Charles Thomson, Continental Congress Secretary; Thomas McKean, signer of the Declaration of Independence; and David Rittenhouse, first director of the U.S. Mint.(19)

It became a cemetery where the wealthy and influential wanted to be buried. During the Civil War many members of the military, including 42 Generals were buried at Laurel Hill. Today, after several expansions, Laurel Hill covers 78 acres.(18)

Sadly after the second World War the cemetery became the victim of neglect and vandalism. In 1977 Laurel Hill Cemetery was added to the National Register of Historic Places.

Monument of a Mother, holding her twins.(A4)
In following year a committee was founded, Friends of Laurel Hill Cemetery, to help preserve the history and beauty of the cemetery. Founded by a direct descendant of John Jay Smith, Drayton Smith, his wife, and historian John Francis Marion, it helped to preserve the history and beauty of the cemetery, for future generations. They host tours, a 5K run, and a ball to help raise funds for the cemetery.(18)







Rosehill Cemetery(A5)

Rose Hill Cemetery was established in 1859.(20) The name Rose Hill was an error, it was supposed to be titled "Roe's Hill", named after Hiram Roe. The owner of the land who sold it to the city for the cemetery.

The entrance gate to the cemetery was designed by William W. Boyington, who also designed the Chicago Water Tower. He is buried in Rose Hill.(21)
Rose Hill Entrance (A6)

Entered into the National Register of historic Places in 1975, Rose Hill is full of beautiful, and interesting monuments.

Frances Pearce Monument
Photo By:
Jim Craig via Under Every Stone Blog
The monument of Frances Pearce and her daughter are one of the more touching sculptures in the cemetery. The husband of Frances, Horatio commissioned the monument when his wife died in childbirth.
Mattie May Monument
Photo By: David M. Habben via Find A Grave.com

The May's monument is the likeness of a woman laying back on a couch with a book in her hand. The inscription reads: "She was an ideal woman and model wife."

The Stein family have two Greyhound dogs forever guarding their grave.

Many well know Chicagoans are buried here as well.

Charles J. Hull (1820-1889)

Charles J. Hull Monument(A7)

The developer of the infamous Hull House. The story goes that a woman gave birth while living in the house to a devil baby, that had horns, hooves, and a tail. The story became the inspiration for the 1968 film "Rosemary's Baby"

John D. Hertz, Sr. (1879-1961)
Founder of Hertz Rent-a-Car

Richard Warren Sears (1863-1914), founder of Sears Roebuck and Company, and Aaron Montgomery (1844-1913) who founded the Montgomery Ward mail order catalog are both interred in beautiful private rooms in Rose Hill Mausoleum.
Rosehill Mausoleum(A8)
The mausoleum was designed by Sidney Lovell (1867-1938) and dedicated in 1914. It has two levels, and is made out of marble. The floors are made from Carrara marble. There are private family rooms, with beautiful bronze gates, and Tiffany stained glass windows.

Another mausoleum of note in Rose Hill is that of the Franks. 14 year old Bobby Franks was heinously murdered by his cousin, Richard Loeb and Richard's friend, Nathan Leopold, Jr. To learn more about Bobby Franks' murder please see my previous post. The inscription in the inside of the mausoleum on Bobby's crypt, reads: "Life is because God is, infinite, indestructible, and eternal." Bobby's parents knew pain the no parent should have to experience.
Franks Mausoleum(A9)
Rose Hill should definitely be on a taphophiles list of places to see.



Website Citations

1. Wikipedia contributors. "Père Lachaise Cemetery." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 31 Jul. 2015. Web. 14 Sep. 2015.

2. Wikipedia contributors. "Monumental Cemetery of Staglieno." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 24 Jun. 2015. Web. 20 Sep. 2015.

3. Wikipedia contributors. "Highgate Cemetery." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 7 Sep. 2015. Web. 20 Sep. 2015.

4. Branley, Edward. "NOLA History: Metairie Cemetery in New Orleans - GoNOLA.com." GoNOLA.com. N.p., 06 May 2013. Web. 20 Sept. 2015. <http://gonola.com/2013/05/06/nola-history-metairie-cemetery-in-new-orleans.html>.

5. Wikipedia contributors. "Charles T. Howard." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 26 Feb. 2015. Web. 21 Sep. 2015.

6. Wikipedia contributors. "Angel of Grief." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 20 Aug. 2015. Web. 21 Sep. 2015.

7. Wikipedia contributors. "Metairie Cemetery." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 10 Sep. 2015. Web. 21 Sep. 2015.

8. Service Corporation International. "Our Business History - About SCI - Service Corporation International." Service Corporation International, 2014. Web. 20 Sept. 2015. <http://www.sci-corp.com/en-us/about-sci/our-business-history.page>.

9. "Web Brochure 2015." Arlington National Cemetery. U.S. Government, 2016. Web. 03 Feb. 2016. <http://www.arlingtoncemetery.mil/>.

10. Wikipedia contributors. "John F. Kennedy Eternal Flame." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 26 Jan. 2016. Web. 4 Feb. 2016.

11. Wikipedia contributors. "William Howard Taft." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 4 Feb. 2016. Web. 4 Feb. 2016.

12. "Chapter 2 - The Last Salute." Chapter 2 - The Last Salute. U.S. Army Center of Military History, 24 May 2005. Web. 04 Feb. 2016. <http://www.history.army.mil/books/Last_Salute/Ch2.htm>.

13. Wikipedia contributors. "Bonaventure Cemetery." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 2 Nov. 2015. Web. 7 Feb. 2016.

14. Wikipedia contributors. "John Muir." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 5 Feb. 2016. Web. 7 Feb. 2016.

15. "Little Gracie in Bonaventure Cemetery." Discover Historic America Tours. N.p., 2016. Web. 07 Feb. 2016. <http://discoverhistoricamericatours.com/savannah/historic-people/little-gracie/>.

16. "Famous People Buried in Bonaventure Cemetery." Ranker. N.p., 2006. Web. 07 Feb. 2016. <http://www.ranker.com/list/famous-people-buried-in-bonaventure-cemetery/reference>.

17. The Laurel Hill Cemetery. Friends of Laurel Hill Cemetery, 2016. Web. 14 Feb. 2016. <http://www.thelaurelhillcemetery.org/index.php?flash=1>.

18. Keels, Thomas H. "Laurel Hill Cemetery." The Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia. Mid-Atlantic Regional Center for the Humanities, 2016. Web. 14 Feb. 2016. <http://philadelphiaencyclopedia.org/archive/laurel-hill-cemetery/#4709>.


19. Wikipedia contributors. "Laurel Hill Cemetery." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 12 Jan. 2016. Web. 14 Feb. 2016.


20. Hucke, Matt. "Rosehill Cemetery and Mausoleum." Rosehill Cemetery and Mausoleum. N.p., 2010. Web. 28 Feb. 2016. <https://graveyards.com/IL/Cook/rosehill/>.


21. Wikipedia contributors. "Rosehill Cemetery." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 24 Jan. 2016. Web. 28 Feb. 2016.


Photography Citations

A. "Pere Lachaise Chemin Errazu" by Peter Poradisch - Peter Poradisch (Drfine); own photography. Licensed under CC BY 2.5 via Commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pere_Lachaise_Chemin_Errazu.jpg#/media/File:Pere_Lachaise_Chemin_Errazu.jpg

B. "Jim-Morrison Pere Lachaise 2" by Fab1 - de.wikipedia.org: 21:15, 15. Aug 2005 . . Fab1 . . 2560 x 1920 (1539045 Byte) (*Beschreibung: Jim Morrisons Grab auf dem Père Lachaise Friedhof in Paris *Quelle: selbst fotografiert *Fotograf: Fabian Müller *Datum: 14.8.2005 {{Bild-GFDL}}). Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jim-Morrison_Pere_Lachaise_2.jpg#/media/File:Jim-Morrison_Pere_Lachaise_2.jpg

C. "Chopin.grave.Paris" by Phade2k (talk) (Uploads) - Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chopin.grave.Paris.JPG#/media/File:Chopin.grave.Paris.JPG

D. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monteverde_Angel

E.F.G.H. http://www.barnorama.com/the-epic-monumental-cemetery-of-staglieno/

I. http://www.thanos.org/en/page/news/show/article-famous-cemeteries-2015

J. "High-cemetery-circle". Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:High-cemetery-circle.jpg#/media/File:High-cemetery-circle.jpg 

K. "Egyptian Avenue Highgate Cemetary" by JohnArmagh - Own work. Licensed under Public Domain via Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:EgyptianAvenue_HighgateCemetary.JPG#/media/File:EgyptianAvenue_HighgateCemetary.JPG

L. "Highgate Cemetery East" by Panyd at en.wikipedia. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons- https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Highgate_Cemetery_East.JPG#/media/File:Highgate_Cemetery_East.JPG

M. https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/f3/3d/e3/f33de36da300f537cf73769bebd7495a.jpg

N. "MetCemSisterDespondentAngel" by Infrogmation - Own work. Licensed under CC BY 2.5 via Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:MetCemSisterDespondentAngel.jpg#/media/File:MetCemSisterDespondentAngel.jpg

O. "Alexey Sergeev." Sergeev's Home Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2015. <http://www.asergeev.com/index.htm>. Photo Taken By: Alexey Sergeev

P. By Ingfbruno - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=27506493

Q. Abbie Rowe [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons, https://commons.wikimedia.org  
R. http://www.presidentsusa.net/taftgravesite.html

S. By Jtesla16 - Own work, CC BY 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=6930389

T. By NASA - NASA Human Space Flight Gallery (image link), Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=181762

U. By Unknown - This image is available from the United States Library of Congress's Prints and Photographs division under the digital ID cph.3a12710.This tag does not indicate the copyright status of the attached work. A normal copyright tag is still required. Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=18391969

V. Vinnie Ream Monument. Digital image. Find A Grave. Janet Greentree, 15 Feb. 2003. Web. 14 Feb. 2016. <http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=7186312>.

W. By Ivan Busatt - This image is available from the United States Library of Congress's Prints and Photographs division under the digital ID cph.3b09981.This tag does not indicate the copyright status of the attached work. A normal copyright tag is still required. Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=35077628

X. By dbking / David (last name not given) - http://flickr.com/photos/bootbearwdc/92439216/, CC BY 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1270299

Y. By Source, Fair use, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?curid=31653016

Z. By The original uploader was Willjay at English Wikipedia - Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons by Igitur using CommonsHelper., CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=10608768

A1. Del, J.K. "Daily Tombstone Photo." Tombstone and Grave of Little Gracie Watson. J.K. Del, 12 May 2010. Web. 07 Feb. 2016. <http://dailytombstonephoto.blogspot.com/2010/05/tombstone-and-grave-of-little-gracie.html>.

A2. By Jack Boucher - Library of Congress, Historic American Buildings Survey, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/pnp/habshaer/pa/pa0900/pa0962/color/314296cv.jpg, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=11443574

A3. & A4. By Smallbones - Own work, CC0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=18019210

A5. Marie, Andi. Digital image. Rosehill Cemetery. Chicago Patterns, 7 Mar. 2004. Web. 28 Feb. 2016. <http://chicagopatterns.com/rosehill-cemetery/>.

A6. By MattHucke at the English language Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=17893128

A7. Park, Richard Henry. Charles J. Hull Monument. Digital image. Chicago Architecture. Jyoti, 22 Mar. 2011. Web. 28 Feb. 2016. <http://chicago-architecture-jyoti.blogspot.com/2011_03_01_archive.html>.

A8. Jyoti. RoseHill Mausoleum. Digital image. Chicago Architecture. Jyoti, 22 Mar. 2011. Web. 28 Feb. 2016. <http://chicago-architecture-jyoti.blogspot.com/2011_03_01_archive.html>.

A9. Martin, Jason. Robert Emmanuel "Bobby" Franks Grave Location. Digital image. Cast No Shadow. Blogger, 30 Apr. 2012. Web. 28 Feb. 2016. <http://sojarinn.blogspot.com/2012/04/robert-emmanuel-bobby-franks-grave.html>.

Book Citations

I. Knight, Derrick. "Introduction." Introduction. MAGNIFICENT SEVEN, THE: London's First Landscaped Cemeteries. By John Turpin. N.p.: Amberley, 2011. N. pag. Print.

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