August 20, 2017

New London School Explosion- The Day The Sky Turned Black

Sometimes a regular, mundane, day can turn into a living nightmare. Everything can seem normal, even wonderful, then disaster can strike. The calm before the storm can happen without warning. No one knows that the blue skies are about to turn black. On Thursday, March 18th, 1937 was one of these days for the children and teachers of New London, Texas Elementary School. 294 students and teachers wouldn't live to see the end of that day.1 That normal day turned into a living nightmare for the city of New London.

One of New London's shop instructors turned on an electric sander, unknown to him, by doing this simple action caused a spark which ignited the gas-filled air, triggering a massive explosion.

New London School before the explosion
When the school was built, the school board opted to install gas heaters instead of using boilers and steam to heat the building, which was common at the time. The school got their gas by tapping into Parade Gasoline Company's residual gas line. Though it wasn't necessarily sanctioned by the gas companies, it was overlooked and was a common practice. The gas that the school tapped into was considered a waste product. This gas varied in quality and was odorless and colorless. Gas started leaking from the tap line and had encompassed the crawlspace beneath the school. The gas had been building up for months so much so, that students had been complaining of headaches.

The explosion was massive. It's said the explosion caused the school to lift into the air and fall back to the ground. The roof collapsed.  A two-ton concrete piece of concrete flew 200 feet and crashed into a 1936 Chevrolet.
1936 Chevy destroyed from the blast
Photo From: http://nlsd.net/Photos/

The scene was full of screaming children, bodies mangled under bricks, and dirt and debris everywhere. It's said that some children were hanging from the roof before it collapsed.

 William Grigg, a student who was only 11 years old at the time recalled: "The building and ground shook like an earthquake, and the building seemed to suck in then blew out. I didn't hear anything, though it was heard for miles away. I ran away and in doing so I climbed a fence that was around the school. I had never been able to climb it before. But I did that day! Then I climbed back over and started to look for my brothers. I went around towards the front and remember seeing a girl who sat in front of me in class. All that remained of her was her head and upper torso."2

Molly Ward, who was a fourth grader at the school, commented that "It's something that scars your mind--the screams, the cries--like some horrible disease you just can't shake."3

School after explosion March 19, 1937
Photo From: http://nlsd.net/Photos/
The community, parents, and oilfield workers started to dig through the rubble looking for survivors. Heavy-duty equipment was used to speed up the process. Texas Governor James Allred sent the highway patrol to help. Mother Francis Hospital in the city of Tyler was having a dedication ceremony but canceled it to help aid the injured.4 25 embalmers were also sent from the Texas Funeral Directors Association to help aid with the dead. "Of the 500 students and forty teachers in the building, approximately 294 died."5

The news of the disaster spread across the country and throughout the world. A young reporter who worked at the United Press in Dallas, came to New London to cover his first major story. His name was Walter Cronkite. "Walter Cronkite went on to cover wars and other major events. He becomes the nation's leading nightly news anchorman. But he would later write that nothing could have prepared him for what he witnessed that day in New London, and no other story ever equaled it."6
A telegram sent by Adolph Hitler, Vice Chancellor at the time, offering the German people's sympathies. Displayed at the New London Museum
Unaware Commuters on Texas State Highway 42 might notice a large granite structure in the median. Many might not know what it is or why it's there. Time has blanketed the disaster erasing the devastation from recent memory. It was erected in 1939 to honor the lives lost that day in 1837. This structure is a cenotaph, a marker in time, to say many were lost, many were affected, many saw the horror, and many felt the pain and agony of the aftermath.

Some days start out normal, mundane even. There are no warning signs. There is nothing to indicate what is about to come. Sometimes blue skies turn black. Sometimes disaster strikes without warning forever scaring that moment in time.


 
1. [“The New London Texas School Explosion.” The New London Texas School Explosion, New London Museum, 2017, nlsd.net/index2.html.]  

2. [Hillard, Robert E. “The New London Texas School Explosion.” New London School Explosion, New London Museum, 2017, nlsd.net/index2.html.]

3. [INMAN, WILLIAM H. “1937 Schoolhouse Explosion 'Scars Your Mind' : Texas Town Haunted by Blast That Killed a Generation.” Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles Times, 22 Mar. 1987, articles.latimes.com/1987-03-22/news/mn-14795_1_natural-gas-leak. ]  

4. [ “History and Heritage of CHRISTUS Trinity Mother Frances.” History and Heritage of CHRISTUS Trinity, www.tmfhc.org/about-us/history-and-heritage-of-trinity-mother-frances/.]

5. [Hillard, Robert E. “The New London Texas School Explosion.” New London School Explosion, New London Museum, 2017, nlsd.net/index2.html.]

6. [LAPIDUS, FAITH. “The Day a Texas School Exploded, and a Generation Died.” VOA, VOA, 18 Mar. 2012, learningenglish.voanews.com/a/texas-school-tragedy-remembered-75-years-later-143104106/611155.html. ]

February 28, 2016

A Macabre Bucket List- 7 Cemeteries To Visit Before You Die

To most, cemeteries and graveyards are a place to avoid unless you are directly impacted by a death. They are places of sorrow, fear, and unpleasantness. However, some people seek out cemeteries. These people don't find fear or negative connotations with cemeteries. They are cemetery tourists. To them, cemeteries are a place to go to relax, reflect, and find comfort. A place to find history. A place to find beauty. These people are called taphophiles. This list is dedicated to all those taphophiles out there. This list is in no particular order.

I. Pere Lachaise Cemetery
Paris, France 

Père Lachaise opened on May 21, 1804. With the cemeteries of Paris filling to capacity, Pere Lachaise was part of several cemeteries, including Montparnasse Cemetery, and Montmartre Cemetery, built to help relieve the crowding in churchyards.


Père Lachaise Cemetery(A) 
Père Lachaise was not a place very many people wanted to spend eternity when it first opened. The Roman Catholics of Paris did not want to be buried in a place that wasn't blessed by the church. A marketing strategy was then devised by the management of Père Lachaise. In 1817, the bodies of the famous Jean de La Fontaine a poet, and Molière, a playwright, were transferred to Père Lachaise that same year.

"The following year there were 44 burials, with 49 in 1806, 62 in 1807 and 833 in 1812." Everyone wanted to be buried next to the famous.

Now, the cemetery has "over 1 million"(1) people buried in Père Lachaise, famous, and common alike. Some of the more famous graves at Père Lachaise include the grave of the author, Oscar Wilde, Lead Singer of "The Doors", Jim Morrison, and classical composer, Frédéric Chopin.
Grave of Oscar Wilde
Photo: Wikimedia Commons

Grave of Jim Morrison at Pere Lachaise
Photo: Wikimedia Commons
Fredrick Chopin's Grave at Pere Lachaise
Photo: Wikimedia Commons

II. Monumental Cemetery of Staglieno
Genoa, Italy

One of the largest cemeteries in Europe, it was opened on January 2, 1851.(2) It has some of the most beautiful sculptures and funerary art in the world. To walk through Staglieno is to walk through a great museum. The presence of grief and remembrance is around every corner.
Mark Twain visited the cemetery in the 1880s and commented: "...as one walks down the middle of the passage, are monuments, tombs, and sculptured figures that are exquisitely wrought and are full of grace and beauty..."

Monteverde Angel | Oneto Family TombPhoto: Wikimedia Commons
Enrico Amerigo Tomb
Photo: Wikimedia Commons
Erasmo Piaggio Tomb
Photo: Wikimedia Commons
Calcagno Family TombPhoto: Wikimedia Commons

Inga Tomb
Photo: Wikimedia Commons

III. Highgate Cemetery
London, England

Highgate Cemetery was opened in 1839 and is part of "The Magnificent Seven". A group of cemeteries on the outer edges of London that was the first to be landscaped and designed with aesthetic value. "Together they tell a story of Victorian enterprise and progress that can impress today, and demonstrate the decent disposal of the dead."(I) The Magnificent Seven was part of a movement to beautify cemeteries, to have them more park-like than simply a dumping ground for the dead.

The cemetery is now managed by "The Friends of Highgate Cemetery", a charity group founded in 1975, its main purpose is to preserve and restore the cemetery for future generations.

Highgate Cemetery
Photo: thanos.org 
The cemetery is divided into the West & East Side. The Westside which is the oldest part of the cemetery is available to visitors by guided tour only. The Westside includes the famous "Egyptian Avenue and The Circle of Lebanon, which features tombs, vaults and winding paths dug into the hillside."(3)
The Circle of LebanonPhoto: Wikimedia Commons
The Entrance to Egyptian Ave
Photo: Wikimedia Commons
 The East Side is available to visitors to explore without a guided tour.
The East Side of Highgate Cemetery(L) 
Some people of fame buried at Highgate include:
Sociologist, Karl Marx
Poet, Christina Rossetti
Scientist, Michael Faraday
Singer, George Michael

IV. Metairie CemeteryNew Orleans, LA

Metairie Cemetery
Photo: Wikimedia Commons
Metairie Cemetery has the largest collection of funerary art and statues in the city of New Orleans. The layout of the cemetery is in the shape of a large oval, due to the site of the cemetery once being a racetrack for horses, Metairie Race Course.


Brunswig Mausoleum at Metairie Cemetery
Photo: Wikimedia Commons

A man named Charles Howard moved to New Orleans from Baltimore before the beginning of the Civil War. He wanted to have a membership to Metairie Jockey Club and was denied membership. The legend goes he swore he would one day buy the race track and turn it into a cemetery. Eventually, Charles had his wish. The cemetery went bankrupt with the Civil War, and Howard bought the track in 1872.(4) Howard is buried in the cemetery, he died in 1885.(5)
Tomb of Charles T. Howard
Photo: Wikimedia Commons
Notable burials in the cemetery include Stan Rice, (Poet and husband of Author, Anne Rice), Marguerite Clark, actress, Dorothy Dell, film actress of the 1930s, and Jefferson Davis, Confederate President during the Civil War.

One of the more beautiful statues in the cemetery is that of the Angel of Grief in the Hyams Mausoleum. It is based off the Angel sculpted by William Wetmore Story in 1894.(6) The Angel of Grief can be found all over the world. The original, by Story, was sculpted for his wife, who is buried at the Protestant Cemetery in Rome, Italy.
Hyams Mausoleum
Photo: Wikimedia Commons
Metairie cemetery is now owned by Service Corporation International.(7) According to SCI's website, they are "...North America’s largest provider of funeral and cemetery services.." The company was founded in 1962 by Robert L. Waltrip, a licensed funeral director who grew up in his family’s funeral business and who still serves as chairman of the Company’s board of directors."(8)        

V. Arlington National Cemetery
Arlington, VA

Arlington National Cemetery
Photo: Wikimedia Commons
Arlington is hallowed ground as the final resting place for our nation's service men, women, and their families. The cemetery's vision is to"...lay to rest those who have served our nation with dignity and honor, treating their families with respect and compassion, and connecting guests to the rich tapestry of the cemetery's living history, while maintaining these hallowed grounds befitting the sacrifice of all those who rest here in quiet repose."

Like other cemeteries, Arlington is full of history. However, with this cemetery, there is a sense of respect and honor to those who have died after or during their service in the military.
Arlington was originally land owned by George Washington's grandson, George Washington Parke Custis. Custis's daughter, Mary Anna Randolph inherited the land after her father's death. Mary Anna was married to the famous Civil War General Robert E. Lee. During the war, the 1,100-acre property served as a military camp.

Mary Anna and Robert Lee's son, George Washington Custis Lee, sold the property to the government in 1864. Due to the high death toll during the war, the property became a cemetery. The first burial was in 1864 for Private William Christman. On June 15, the property was officially named a national cemetery.

Today Arlington serves as the final resting place for more than 400,000 military men and women and their families.(9)

Famous graves in the cemetery included Presidents, John F. Kennedy, and William Howard Taft, The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, Sculptor, Vinnie Ream, Boxer, Joe Louis, and Civil Rights Activist, Medgar Evers, and the Tomb of the Unknowns.

-President John F. Kennedy

John F. Kennedy's grave with the eternal flame burning in the background.
Photo: Wikimedia Commons
November 22, 1963, JFK was assigned by Lee Harvey Oswald while on a campaign trip in Dallas, TX. The world went into shock.

Mrs. Kennedy stated she wanted to model her husband's funeral after that of Abraham Lincoln's'. The executive director of the U.S. Civil War Centennial Commission, Professor James Robertson, and David Mearns, the directory of the Library of Congress did extensive research on Lincoln's funeral. As it took place a hundred years earlier for that of Lincoln, the East Room in the White House was transformed into a viewing room for the late President's casket.

On a trip back in March of that year, Kennedy stated while visiting the Cutis-Lee Mansion, that the view of Washington DC was so beautiful that he could stay there forever. Robert Kennedy used that memory as confirmation that Arlington would be where JFK would come to rest.

Mrs. Kennedy wanted to mark her husband's grave with an eternal flame just as the grave of the unknown soldier in Paris, France. The Washington Gas Company hooked up a propane torch and it was lit by Mrs. Kennedy, and Robert during the funeral on November 25, 1967. There is a constant electric flashing spark near the nozzle which will relight the gas should it go out from rain or the wind.

The entire gravesite is 3.2 acres and the area directly around the grave is paved with stones quarried from Cape Cod, Kennedy's former home city.
Mrs. Kennedy and Robert F. Kennedy walk away
from 
President Kennedy's casket after lighting the Eternal Flame
Photo: Wikimedia Commons

"The presence of the grave also boosted attendance at Arlington National Cemetery. The president's 1963 funeral had been televised live, with 93 percent of all American homes watching. Satellites beamed the proceedings to another 23 countries, where another 600 million viewers watched. The television coverage transformed Arlington National Cemetery from a quiet veterans' cemetery into one of the Washington area's most popular tourist attractions. Average yearly attendance rose from 1 million people in 1962 to 9 million in the first six months of 1964."(10)

-President William Howard Taft
Taft died on March 8, 1930, due to heart disease.(11) His funeral was held at All Souls' Unitarian Church in Washington, DC. Members of the Supreme Court were pallbearers.

William Howard Taft Memorial
Photo: Wikimedia Commons
"At the request of the family, burial was to be in Arlington National Cemetery. Mr. Taft would be the first President buried there. Following the funeral service, a motor procession without military escort was to accompany the body to the Fort Myer Gate of the cemetery. There a military escort was to meet the motorcade and conduct it to the grave site, a 2,500-square-foot plot in the northeastern area which held few graves but was well landscaped. Mrs. Taft and her two sons and daughter, accompanied by Colonel Hodges and Col. Charles G. Mortimer, the officer in charge at Arlington, had visited the cemetery on 9 March and selected the site."(11)

-Vinnie Ream

She was the sculptor of the Lincoln statue in the U.S. Capitol rotunda and the first female artist commissioned by the government. She was also the last artist Lincoln sat for.(12)

Vinnie posing for the photo with a bust of Lincoln.
Photo: Wikimedia Commons 

Vinnie Ream Monument at Arlington
Photo: Janet Greentree via Findagrave.com 

-Boxer, Joe Louis "The Brown Bomber"

He reigned as the world heavyweight champion from 1937 to 1949 and won Associated Press' "Athlete of the Year" award for 1935.(13)
Heavyweight Champion of The World, 1937
Photo: Wikimedia Commons 
Louis' grave in Arlington
Photo: Wikimedia Commons


-Medgar Evers

Civil Rights Activist who was shot by a white supremacist in 1963. For more information on the murder of Medgar please see my previous post.

Medgar Evers
Photo: Wikimedia Commons
Medgar Evers grave at Arlington
Photo: Wikimedia Commons

-Tomb of the Unknowns

Tomb of the Unknowns
Photo: Wikimedia Commons
The tomb of the Unknowns was completed in 1932, however, an unknown soldier who died in WW1 was buried in the incomplete tomb in 1921. Unidentified soldiers who have died in World War I, World War II, Korea, and Vietnam wars have been interred in the tomb. However, the unknown soldier from Vietnam became known. From mitochondrial DNA testing, the world found out that the unknown soldier was 1st Lt. Michael Joseph Blassie, who was killed in Vietnam in 1972. Blassie's remains were moved from the tomb to his hometown of St. Louis, Missouri. He was buried in the Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery, on July 11, 1994.(14)

VI. Bonaventure Cemetery
Savannah, GA

Known for its oak-lined walkways and weeping willows, Bonaventure started as a private cemetery on Bonaventure Plantation. In 1846 Josiah Tattnall, Jr. sold it to Evergreen Cemetery Company which was purchased by the city in 1907, making Bonaventure Cemetery, a public cemetery.(13) Citizens of Savannah can still buy plots in Bonaventure for their internment.


Ives Monument

In 1867 a naturalist and preservationist named John Muir took a long walk of 1,000 miles from Indiana to Florida.(15) He later wrote a book about the adventure entitled "Thousand Mile Walk to the Gulf". While in Atlanta he chose to sleep in Bonaventure Cemetery for six days and nights. He slept on graves, stating it was the safest and cheapest place he could find while he waited for money from home to arrive. Muir said of the cemetery: "...I gazed awe-stricken as one new-arrived from another world. Bonaventure is called a graveyard, a town of the dead, but the few graves are powerless in such a depth of life. The rippling of living waters, the song of birds, the joyous confidence of flowers, the calm, undisturbable grandeur of the oaks, mark this place of graves as one of the Lord’s most favored abodes of life and light."(16)

One of the most visited and beautiful tombstones at Bonaventure is that of a young girl named Gracie Watson. She was born in 1883 to W.J. and Frances Watson. He was the manager of the luxurious Pulaski Hotel. It is said that Gracie, with her blue eyes and a bright smile, would entertain the guests at the hotel with dances, and songs.
Gracie Watson's Grave
Photo: Wikimedia Commons
Sadly in 1889 Gracie died from pneumonia. To remember her, her grief-stricken parents had the artist John Walz carve the likeness of Gracie in a sculpture to place in the Watson Family plot in Bonaventure. As a tribute, many visitors leave flowers and toys for little Gracie.(17)

VI. Laurel Hill CemeteryPhiladelphia, PA

Laurel Hill Cemetery's gatehouse built in 1835, designed by John Notman
Photo: Wikimedia Commons
In 1835 a man named John Jay Smith had lost his daughter. While looking at local churchyard to bury her, he was struck by how crowded it was. "...I found it impossible to designate the resting place of a darling daughter, determined me to endeavor to procure for the citizens a suitable, neat and orderly location for a rural cemetery."(18)
Smith wanted to create a cemetery that was a place of peace, and beauty for Philadelphia, a park-like place where overcrowding wasn't a problem. In 1836 Smith and some associates, citizens of Philadelphia who shared Smith's vision bought a 32-acre estate called Laurel Hill. It's remote location applied to Smith. A Scottish immigrant named John Notman designed the cemetery.(19)
Patterson Monument at Laurel Hill
Photo: Wikimedia Commons
The cemetery was completed in 1839. To increase the cemeteries notoriety, several prominent citizens were interred from other burial sites and reburied at Laurel Hill, including Charles Thomson, Continental Congress Secretary; Thomas McKean, signer of the Declaration of Independence; and David Rittenhouse, first director of the U.S. Mint.


It became a cemetery where the wealthy and influential wanted to be buried. During the Civil War many members of the military, including 42 Generals were buried at Laurel Hill. Today, after several expansions, Laurel Hill covers 78 acres.(20)

Sadly after the Second World War, the cemetery became the victim of neglect and vandalism. In 1977 Laurel Hill Cemetery was added to the National Register of Historic Places.

Benson Mausoleum at Laurel Hill Cemetery
Photo: Wikimedia Commons
In following year a committee was founded, Friends of Laurel Hill Cemetery, to help preserve the history and beauty of the cemetery. Founded by a direct descendant of John Jay Smith, Drayton Smith, his wife, and historian John Francis Marion, it helped to preserve the history and beauty of the cemetery, for future generations.(21) They host tours, a 5K run, and a ball to help raise funds for the cemetery.





VII. Rose Hill Cemetery
5800 N. Ravenswood Ave.
Chicago, IL

Rosehill Cemetery
Photo: Chicago Patterns
Rose Hill Cemetery was established in 1859.(22) The name Rose Hill was an error, it was supposed to be titled "Roe's Hill", named after Hiram Roe. The owner of the land who sold it to the city for the cemetery.

The entrance gate to the cemetery was designed by William W. Boyington, who also designed the Chicago Water Tower. He is buried in Rose Hill.(23)
Rose Hill Entrance
Photo: Wikimedia Commons
Entered into the National Register of Historic Places in 1975, Rose Hill is full of beautiful, and interesting monuments.
Frances Pearce Monument
Photo By: 
Jim Craig via Under Every Stone Blog
The monument of Frances Pearce and her daughter are one of the more touching sculptures in the cemetery. The husband of Frances, Horatio commissioned the monument when his wife died in childbirth.
Mattie May Monument
Photo By: David M. Habben via Find A Grave.com
The May's monument is the likeness of a woman laying back on a couch with a book in her hand. The inscription reads: "She was an ideal woman and model wife."

The Stein family have two Greyhounds forever guarding their grave.

Close up of one the greyhounds at the Stein Family Grave
Photo Courtesy of A. Louise Weston @ https://www.marbleorchard.com/
Check out her page for more beautiful photos of cemeteries!
Many well know Chicagoans are buried here as well, such as:

John D. Hertz, Sr. (1879-1961)
Founder of Hertz Rent-a-Car

Richard Warren Sears (1863-1914), founder of Sears Roebuck and Company, and Aaron Montgomery (1844-1913) who founded the Montgomery Ward mail-order catalog are both interred in beautiful private rooms in Rose Hill Mausoleum.


Rosehill Mausoleum
Photo: Wikimedia Commons
The mausoleum was designed by Sidney Lovell (1867-1938) and dedicated in 1914. It has two levels and is made out of marble. The floors are made from Carrara marble. There are private family rooms, with beautiful bronze gates, and Tiffany stained glass windows. 

Another mausoleum of note in Rose Hill is that of the Franks. 14-year-old Bobby Franks was heinously murdered by his cousin, Richard Loeb and Richard's friend, Nathan Leopold, Jr. To learn more about Bobby Franks' murder please see my previous post. The inscription on the inside of the mausoleum in Bobby's crypt, reads: "Life is because God is, infinite, indestructible, and eternal." 
Franks' Mausoleum at Rosehill Cemetery
Photo: 
sojarinn.blogspot.com

Website Citations

1. Wikipedia contributors. "Père Lachaise Cemetery." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 31 Jul. 2015. Web. 14 Sep. 2015.

2. Wikipedia contributors. "Monumental Cemetery of Staglieno." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 24 Jun. 2015. Web. 20 Sep. 2015.

3. Wikipedia contributors. "Highgate Cemetery." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 7 Sep. 2015. Web. 20 Sep. 2015.

4. Branley, Edward. "NOLA History: Metairie Cemetery in New Orleans - GoNOLA.com." GoNOLA.com. N.p., 06 May 2013. Web. 20 Sept. 2015. <http://gonola.com/2013/05/06/nola-history-metairie-cemetery-in-new-orleans.html>.

5. Wikipedia contributors. "Charles T. Howard." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 26 Feb. 2015. Web. 21 Sep. 2015.

6. Wikipedia contributors. "Angel of Grief." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 20 Aug. 2015. Web. 21 Sep. 2015.

7. Wikipedia contributors. "Metairie Cemetery." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 10 Sep. 2015. Web. 21 Sep. 2015.

8. Service Corporation International. "Our Business History - About SCI - Service Corporation International." Service Corporation International, 2014. Web. 20 Sept. 2015. <http://www.sci-corp.com/en-us/about-sci/our-business-history.page>.

9. "Web Brochure 2015." Arlington National Cemetery. U.S. Government, 2016. Web. 03 Feb. 2016. <http://www.arlingtoncemetery.mil/>.

10. Wikipedia contributors. "John F. Kennedy Eternal Flame." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 26 Jan. 2016. Web. 4 Feb. 2016.

11. Wikipedia contributors. "William Howard Taft." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 4 Feb. 2016. Web. 4 Feb. 2016.

12. Wikipedia contributors. "Vinnie Ream." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 17 Sep. 2017. Web.
18 Sep. 2017

13. "Chapter 2 - The Last Salute." Chapter 2 - The Last Salute. U.S. Army Center of Military History, 24 May 2005. Web. 04 Feb. 2016. <http://www.history.army.mil/books/Last_Salute/Ch2.htm>.

14. Wikipedia contributors. "Arlington National Cemetery." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 7 Sep. 2017. Web.
18 Sep. 2017

15. Wikipedia contributors. "Bonaventure Cemetery." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 2 Nov. 2015. Web. 7 Feb. 2016.

16. Wikipedia contributors. "John Muir." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 5 Feb. 2016. Web. 7 Feb. 2016.

17. "Little Gracie in Bonaventure Cemetery." Discover Historic America Tours. N.p., 2016. Web. 07 Feb. 2016. <http://discoverhistoricamericatours.com/savannah/historic-people/little-gracie/>.

18. The Laurel Hill Cemetery. Friends of Laurel Hill Cemetery, 2016. Web. 14 Feb. 2016. <http://www.thelaurelhillcemetery.org/index.php?flash=1>.

19. Keels, Thomas H. "Laurel Hill Cemetery." The Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia. Mid-Atlantic Regional Center for the Humanities, 2016. Web. 14 Feb. 2016. <http://philadelphiaencyclopedia.org/archive/laurel-hill-cemetery/#4709>.

20. Wikipedia contributors. "Laurel Hill Cemetery." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 12 Jan. 2016. Web. 14 Feb. 2016.

21. Keels, Thomas H. "Laurel Hill Cemetery." The Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia. Mid-Atlantic Regional Center for the Humanities, 2016. Web. 14 Feb. 2016. <http://philadelphiaencyclopedia.org/archive/laurel-hill-cemetery/#4709>.

22. Hucke, Matt. "Rosehill Cemetery and Mausoleum." Rosehill Cemetery and Mausoleum. N.p., 2010. Web. 28 Feb. 2016. <https://graveyards.com/IL/Cook/rosehill/>.

23. Wikipedia contributors. "Rosehill Cemetery." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 24 Jan. 2016. Web. 28 Feb. 2016.

Book Citations

I. Knight, Derrick. "Introduction." Introduction. MAGNIFICENT SEVEN, THE: London's First Landscaped Cemeteries. By John Turpin. N.p.: Amberley, 2011. N. pag. Print.